Application Notes


We have prepared many pages of Application Notes to assist our customers with various aspects of powder diffraction  technique applied to the solution of their specific problems. These Notes are introductory materials for origin specific problems. Every Note is intend to address common aspects of origin-specific problems, such as phase  identification, phase quantification,  minor and parasitic phases, frequent problems associated with samples, their preparation for analysis etc. By our opinion, these Notes will be a great help for newcomers, students or experts as their first introduction  to new class of problems and materials. Most importantly, our listing  of References at end of each Note will help you with your in depth knowledge with new and specific problems.
  • Characterizations of mining slags and tailings
  • Characterizations of complex ores such as bauxites and laterites
  • Characterizations of environmental samples
  • Characterizations of lacustrine, fluvial, and marine sediments
  • Characterizations of new synthetic materials developed for various industrial and technological applications (e.g., sorbants, batteries, catalysts, magnetic materials)
  • Characterizations of synthetic analogue materials developed to model natural materials that are important in various natural processes
  • Characterizations of natural and transformed fuels and combustion products (e.g., coals and their transformation products)
  • Mineralogical analyses aimed at elucidating the causes of colour, for remote sensing applications
  • Forensic consultations related to materials (e.g., glass, metal fillings, residues, suspected contaminants, etc.)
  • Characterizations of geological samples used in natural disaster risk analysis and weathering studies
  • Consultations regarding the materials science of: tool steel, magnetic memory technology, Invar alloys for aerospace applications, Elinvar alloys for spring applications, magnetic particles for MRI imaging enhancement, measurement methods, data analysis, etc.


We are working to make these Notes up to date, changing contents, improving readability and references. Your suggestion and comments are welcome. These Notes are can be freely used for self-learning purposes, educational process with students, so please feel free to print them or photocopy, copy paste into your lecture notes. All other uses of these Notes should be pre-agreed with XRD.US for Copyright limitations.

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) uses the "fingerprint" of a crystalline material to allow identification and quantification of unknown phases in a mixture. It is commonly used in the engineering, geological and materials sciences for applications such as corrosion studies, material fabrication, analysis of combustion products, mineral identification and determination of lattice parameters. Rapid identification of unknowns is possible using search/match software available at  the unit and quantification of the various phases is also possible. Information about crystal structure, crystallite size and residual strain may also be obtained. Samples may be in solid or powder form, and the technique is non-destructive . A thirty five position sample changer is available to allow overnight, unattended operation of the XRD.

If you decided to write a application note on specific topic, let us know, we will review it and your authorship will be acknowledged

Currently we pleased to offer the following Application Notes:


Note No



Link to ApplNote

AN-101 Powder diffraction of Asbestos XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/asbestos.htm
AN-102 Powder diffraction of Catalysts XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/catalysts.htm
AN-103 Powder diffraction of Ceramics XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/ceramics.htm
AN-104 Powder diffraction of Chemicals XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/chemicals.htm
AN-105 Powder diffraction of Clays and clay minerals XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/clays.htm
AN-106 Powder diffraction of Clinker and cement XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/clinker and cement.htm
AN-107 Powder diffraction of Composite materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/composite materials.htm
AN-108 Powder diffraction of Corrosion products XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/corrosion products.htm
AN-109 Powder diffraction for Environmental Appl XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/environmental.htm
AN-1010 Powder diffraction of Fly ash XRD.US www.xrd.us/applnote/fly ash.htm
AN-1011 Powder diffraction of Forensics XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/forensics.htm
AN-1012 Powder diffraction of Industrial wastes XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/industrial wastes.htm
AN-1013 Powder diffraction of Metals and alloys XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/metals and alloys.htm
AN-1014 Powder diffraction for  Mineral studies XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/minerals.htm
AN-1015 Powder diffraction for Mining XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/mining.htm
AN-1016 Powder diffraction of Nanomaterials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/nanomaterials.htm
AN-1017 Powder diffraction for Oil drilling XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/oil drilling.htm
AN-1018 Powder diffraction in Patent process XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/patent infringment.htm
AN-1019 Powder diffraction of Pharmaceuticals XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/pharmaceuticals.htm
AN-1020 Powder diffraction of Plastics, fibers & textiles XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/plastic fiber textile.htm
AN-1021 Powder diffraction of Raw materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/raw materials.htm
AN-1022 Powder diffraction of Refractory materials XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/refractory materials.htm
AN-1023 Powder diffraction of Rocks XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/rocks.htm
AN-1024 Powder diffraction of Semiconductors XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/semiconductors.htm
AN-1025 Powder diffraction of Soils XRD.US http://www.xrd.us/applnote/soils.htm




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